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Get Fit Trine: Proposal to Increase the Amount of Physical Activity and Increase Physical Education for Trine Students

Executive Summary
Lack of exercise is a problem across the country and especially on college campuses. Exercise is a crucial part of a healthy lifestyle for anyone, especially college students. There are many potential negative effects to not getting enough exercise. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), a person is at risk for more life-threatening diseases if they do not exercise.1 It has also been proven that the weight gained by college students is mostly from a lack of exercise.2 Lack of exercise is a problem that at Trine that should be dealt with in order to ensure students are healthy and productive and to encourage lifelong wellness.

Get Fit Trine is a program that encourages physical activity through physical and mental weekly group challenges that allow students to learn how to properly exercise and have fun while doing it. The program specifically targets non-athletes and those students who do not describe themselves as active, but is open to all students. Students will participate in the program because of the incentives we offer and the fact that many of the challenges are not based on physical fitness alone. An informal survey of Trine’s students showed that approximately ninety percent of respondents would participate in a “team event that combines mental and physical activities.” Based on this number, the program will have 96 participants for the first two years but will be expanded if it is successful.

While Get Fit Trine may not motivate every student to improve their fitness levels, it will motivate students at Trine who are not physically active and participate in athletics to increase their fitness levels, knowledge, and to allow them to have fun while doing it. Get Fit Trine will help to improve the health of students on campus.

Introduction
Lack of exercise is a major problem both nationwide and on college campuses. A study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) illustrated the physical activity of adults ages 18-24. As Shown in Figure 1: Physical Activity of Adults Ages 18-24 from 2008-2010, 27% of those young adults are inactive. In this survey, “inactive” is no aerobic physical activity lasting at least 10 minutes; ‘‘low activity’’ is aerobic physical activity for fewer than 150 minutes per week; ‘‘medium activity’’ is aerobic physical activity lasting 150–300 minutes per week; and ‘‘high activity’’ is light-moderate or vigorous leisure-time aerobic physical activity for more than 300 minutes per week.3 According to the survey, only 53.9% of adults met the federal guidelines for aerobic activity.4

Figure1

Figure 1: Physical Activity of Adults Ages 18-24 from 2008-2010 Source: CDC

Although it is a major problem nationally, lack of exercise is also a significant problem on college campuses because of the stressors many college students experience. Students who do not get sufficient exercise have a higher chance of suffering from health problems. According to John P. Thyfault, an associate professor of nutrition and exercise physiology at the University of Missouri, “inactivity plays a role in almost every chronic disease there is.”5 According to the USDA, a lack of exercise increases the risk of developing heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and stroke.6 However, those who do exercise will gain many benefits from it. Some of the benefits noted by the USDA are an increase in quality of sleep, muscle and bone strength, life span, and weight stability.7 In addition to the health benefits, regular exercise and a healthy diet can improve the academic success of college students. The brain functions better after exercise because of the increased flow of oxygen to the brain.8 When the brain functions better, students are able to concentrate on their homework and perform better academically.

According to Jeremy Howard, Trine University’s Director of Student Services, between 40%-45% of the campus population are involved in athletics.9 As a result, most student-athletes exercise on a regular basis both in and out of season. However, there is still a large percentage of students who are not involved in any form of athletics at all. These students must independently plan workouts that will fit their schedules. If regular exercise is not built into a student’s schedule, it can become difficult for them to maintain a routine between classes, schoolwork, jobs, and clubs. In an informal survey of 182 undergraduate students taken at Trine University, 48% of the students who reported that they were not involved in athletics or active claimed that it was because of a lack of time in their schedules. The other 52% of students who reported they were not active said that it was because they lacked a desire to exercise. Consequently, students may not exercise regularly or at all. Their lack of exercise can result in a myriad of negative consequences that affect their health and overall wellness.10 Trine University can remedy this problem by implementing a program that will specifically target students who are not involved in athletics. This will assist them in making regular exercise a part of their routine.

Many students feel that it is difficult to maintain a workout regimen with their busy schedules. According to Larissa Hirsch, a writer who specializes in children and young adult health, stress from classes and homesickness can prevent students from making exercise a part of their regular schedule.11 Because college coursework requires more of a time commitment than high school coursework, students tend to prioritize homework over staying healthy.12

A common problem faced by most students during their college years is weight gain. Weight gain is usually a result of a lack of exercise or an unbalanced diet.13 According to Amy O’Connor’s report on a study from Auburn University, 70% of the 131 students in the study gained an average of twelve pounds from their freshman to their senior year.14 While a certain amount of weight gain from year to year is normal, most weight gain can be prevented if a person exercises regularly.15 The researchers also found that the amount of overweight students in a class increased from 18% at the start of their freshman year to 31% at the end of their senior year.16 Based on this study, it is evident that many students gain weight between freshman and senior year beyond average weight fluctuations.

A similar study was performed in the early 2000s that investigated weight change in college students. Of 904 college students studied, both males and females gained an average of eight pounds between their freshman and sophomore year.17 A second study put out by Elisabeth Lloyd-Richardson showed that students gain the most weight during the first semester of their freshman year.18 However, researchers from the second study also documented that students continued to gain weight after their freshman year. Both females and males were nine pounds heavier on average than at the start of college.19 Both the studies from Auburn University and the NSBI show that college students gain weight. This weight gain in college can be prevented if students exercised more. According to Harvard’s School of Public Health, exercising a minimum of 2½ hours per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity can help an individual lose weight.20 If students increase the amount of time per week they spend exercising, they will be able to maintain a stable weight and reap the many benefits that go along with it. This weight gain can have a negative effect on student’s health because it puts them at a higher risk for diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and other diseases.21

Although the majority of Trine University students are involved in sports, Trine’s office of student services offers several different activities for athletes and non-athletes alike. As a part of their Health and Wellness Initiative, students can participate in weekly events that focus on an aspect of wellness or seminars to learn how to live a healthier lifestyle. Every Monday night, students can participate in physical activity classes. The offered classes are Zumba, yoga, boot camp, and kickboxing. Trine University also hosts a health fair in the University Center that allows students to sign up for different activities to help them improve their health. Students can sign up for personal training sessions, health and weight management programs, and strength and flexibility assessments. There is also a seminar about healthy eating to help students improve their eating behaviors.22 By taking advantage of all the activities offered by Trine, it is the University’s hope that students will improve their overall fitness.

In addition to these activities, Trine has several different exercise spaces on campus exclusively for student use. Hershey Hall alone contains three gyms, a track, volleyball courts, racquetball courts, tennis courts, a weight room and a fitness center. The golf course and the ARC also offer indoor track and field activities. Although there are many recreational spaces available to students, many students may not use the facilities on their own because they lack time in their schedules to use them.

Besides several different activities offered, Trine also offers an EMP certification program. The EMP Certification program is “a wellness initiative designed for all Trine Students who would like to learn to live healthy lifestyles.”23 The EMP program focuses on teaching students how to make decisions to improve their emotional, mental, and physical wellness. Students can earn this certification by attending enough seminars to earn 100 points.

Although Trine gives its students many opportunities to exercise, many students do not take advantage of the programs. According to Megan Cook, Director of Trine’s EMP program, between 3 and 30 students attend any given EMP event.24 In fact, only six students earned their EMP certification last year.25 These programs may not be effective because they are only offered between one and three times per month and the incentive to participate in them is not very appealing. Although the “Get Moving Mondays” offer students a chance for physical activity, they do not offer a challenge to students. If students were offered something alongside EMP certification it is likely that more students would attend these events.

While there are many opportunities for students to be active on campus, there are still some who do not take advantage of the opportunity. An informal survey at Trine shows that 13% of respondents to an informal and random survey identified themselves as inactive. With a main campus population of about 1600 students, this means that there are approximately 208 students who identify as inactive. Although this is a small number, Get Fit Trine, will target those students who are inactive by giving them more incentives to be active and introducing them to fun ways to be physically fit.

Get Fit Trine is a proposed solution to encourage more students to exercise at Trine University. We propose that Trine host a series of challenges that will span a semester and result in a prize. In order to appeal to a wide range of students, this will include both physical and mental challenges that will span the semester. At the end of the semester, the team with the most completed challenges will win a prize.

Rationale
While we may never be able to motivate all of the non-athletes at Trine to exercise, we believe that our program will successfully encourage more students to exercise. Our program, Get Fit Trine, will consist of a series of physical and mental challenges and an educational program so students can learn how to exercise and prevent injury. Get Fit Trine will combat students’ lack of physical activity by providing them with an incentive and opportunity to exercise and provide information about how to properly exercise.

Get Fit Trine will employ student workers to run the activities and to produce literature for the program. Student workers will be paid minimum wage and the faculty sponsor will be given a stipend of $300 per semester to run the program. In addition to creating literature, the student workers will be at the activity fair signing up participants and informing them about the program.

To recruit non-athletes to participate in Get Fit Trine, we will rely on advertising, word of mouth, and students who participate in athletics to recruit them to join their teams. The literature produced by the student workers will consist of posters, flyers, and advertisements for the PowerPoint presentation that loops on televisions in the University Center and Cafeteria. Because there is a requirement for teams to consist of a certain number of non-athletes, awareness of the program’s existence will be spread by that method as well.

To kick off Get Fit Trine, all students wanting to participate have to attend an informational convocation. At this convocation, students will be given Appendix A: Evaluation of Physical Activity Awareness among Trine Students. The survey will ask the participants about their own physical activity levels and their knowledge of recommended physical activity guidelines. This survey will be given to the participants again in the program in order to evaluate the effectiveness of Get Fit Trine. After taking the survey, the rules of the overall program will be explained.

Figure 2: Reasons Inactive Students Do Not Exercise shows that the main reasons students who are inactive do not exercise is because they do not have time or desire to exercise. The respondents to this questionnaire had the option of selecting “lack of knowledge” about exercise, but there were zero selections for that option. Our program will tackle both of these issues by giving students an incentive to exercise and making it feasible for their schedules.

Figure2

Figure 2: Reasons Trine Non-Athlete Students Do Not Exercise

The main portion of the program will consist of weekly events that give students the opportunity to test their mental and physical skills among a group of their peers. Participants in the program must create and maintain a co-ed team of six people with at least 3 non-athletes to be eligible for the competitions. Each competition will feature a challenge that combines mental and physical obstacles. For students who are unable to form a team of six on their own, they will be assigned to other unformed groups. Each team will also be assigned a color in place of a team name in order to distinguish them from each other.

In an informal student survey, approximately 90% of responders said that they would participate in a “team event that combines mental and physical activities.” Based on this overwhelming majority, we will limit the maximum number of competitors to 96 for the initial run of Get Fit Trine. With ninety-six students participating in the program, that is fewer than half of the students who have described themselves as inactive. If our program can reach this small number of students and help them to be more active, than our program is a success. Based on the program’s success after its initial two year run, we will then decide whether or not to increase the number of students that can participate in the program.

Based on an informal student interest survey, 80% of respondents said that they prefer that the program be held at 7:00pm or later. For this reason, the weekly events will be held every Tuesday night from 7:00pm – 8:00pm. The student workers and faculty sponsor will arrive up to an hour before the event to set it up and sign in the participants who show up. We have provided a sample of schedule of events and rules for those events for a month’s worth of indoor and outdoor activities. Our budget includes many items that are based on those sample activities. Below is a sample calendar of a month’s worth of indoor and outdoor activities. More information can be found in Appendix C Specifics For the Weekly Challenges. As Figure 3: Sample Outdoor Month of Challenges and Figure 4: Sample Indoor Month of Challenges demonstrate, the events will take place weekly and feature a combination of indoor and outdoor activities due to unpredictable weather. The sample activities were chosen because they have both a mental and a physical aspect to them.

Figure 3

Figure 3: Sample Outdoor Month of Challenges

Figure 4

Figure 4: Sample Indoor Month of Challenges

The final event at the end of the semester is a campus-wide laser tag game. Every team from both divisions will participate at the same time in a free-for-all. Each team will earn points throughout the program for completing and attending each weekly challenge. The teams with the higher point values will have more time to participate in laser tag. This challenge will not have any points awarded or rewards given; it is a fun way to celebrate completing the program successfully.

At the end of each semester, Appendix A: Evaluation of Physical Activity Awareness among Trine Students and Appendix B: Get Fit Trine Program Survey will be given to the participants to evaluate their progress in the program and Get Fit Trine’s effectiveness.

In order to motivate students to participate and hold their interest in Get Fit Trine, our program presents several incentives to motivate students. For each challenge event or educational event a student attends they will be able to earn points towards an EMP certification in addition to earning points for their team by winning challenges. By tying Get Fit Trine to the pre-existing EMP program, students already in the EMP program may become involved in Get Fit Trine. If more students become involved with Trine’s EMP program, they will also be able to gain more knowledge of other aspects of wellness besides physical fitness. Likewise, students in Get Fit Trine can learn about the EMP program and possibly become interested in it. Students will also be able to earn a grand prize if their team wins during the challenges. The grand prize of free books for a semester (up to $500) was determined by an informal student survey. Students who are seniors that win the competition the semester they graduate will receive up to a $500 rebate on their books from last semester.

In order to ensure that our program is motivating students to exercise, participants in the program will have the chance to earn extra points for their team by exercising in Trine’s Fitness centers on campus. The student workers who are already working in the exercise facilities will be given sign-in sheets that will be used to track the students who use the facilities.

Another method of maintaining interest in the program will be sending out a weekly email with the cumulative scores of each team each week. Students will be emailed weekly about their team’s position in order to create a healthy, competitive atmosphere between teams. The purpose of the weekly emails is to help keep interest in returning week after week to the program. The weekly rankings will determine which team in each division wins the grand prize. When students are able to compare themselves to other teams, they will remain interested in the program.

A college that has developed a program very similar to what we intend ours to be is Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, in Terre Haute, Indiana. Rose-Hulman has an undergraduate student population of 2,194.26 Rose-Hulman offers a “Res Hall Challenge” during the 10 weeks of their winter quarter. According to Brian Shearer, Associate Director of Athletic Facilities and Head Softball Coach at Rose Hulman, the program is aimed towards students who are not involved in athletics or other intramural sports. Every week, students have the opportunity to participate in a physical challenge and earn points to compete against other residence halls. In addition to competing in the weekly challenges, students can earn points for their residence hall by keeping track of when they exercise and what kind of exercise they participate in. According to Shearer, last year was the first year that Rose held the program. Although he did not have the exact information, he estimates that anywhere from 150-200 students participated in the program and they are expecting an even bigger turnout this year.27 Like Trine, a large percentage of students at Rose-Hulman are athletes. Shearer also estimates that approximately 1,800 students participate in the intramural program.28 Because of the large amount of students who participate in intramurals and those that are involved in athletics, the “Res Hall Challenge” program at Rose-Hulman must be considered successful because they had close to 10% of their student population participate.

The educational portion of our program will consist of a series of informational and hands-on tours led by exercise science major volunteers that students can attend to better understand how to properly exercise. Our program will offer students a few services to help give them the knowledge they need to exercise properly and effectively. The first of these services includes a tour of the facilities and a demonstration of how to properly use the equipment. Tours will be offered for students on an individual and group basis. Students wishing to participate in these tours will sign up in the office of student services; maintaining the tour program will be a part of the faculty sponsor’s job. In addition to offering tours of the fitness centers, students who are unsure of how to properly exercise will be able to set up appointments with Exercise Science majors to evaluate their current fitness level and set fitness goals. The Exercise Science majors will be able to earn professional experience by helping students in the program; it will be similar to an internship. Brian Neese, Lifting Coach at Brownsburg High School, has provided a sample of what a workout designed for students might look like in Appendix D: Sample Workout Schedule for Participants.29 Participants in the weekly program and those who have scheduled appointments with exercise science major volunteers may use this type of fitness plan when exercising on their own or for the program. These services will help students who may not know how to effectively exercise or those who want to learn how to reach their fitness goals. Although no students in our survey responded that they did not exercise because they do not know how, we decided to continue this aspect of the program because it has seen success at other schools and it presents little cost to the University.

Rose-Hulman also offers three services for students to help them increase their physical activity. Students who have never used exercise equipment before can sign up for an appointment to learn how to properly use the machines. This program helps to ensure that students feel confident about exercising on their own. Rose-Hulman also offers a fitness assessment for students who are unsure of their level of fitness. This enables students to understand what they should improve and what level of fitness they should begin at. In conjunction with these programs, Rose offers a fitness recommendation program that allows students to meet with a trainer and plan a workout routine that matches their goals.30

Through Get Fit Trine, students will become more physically active and show them how to make exercise a regular part of their routine. will help students to be more physically active and motivate them to make exercise a part of their regular routine. The success of Get Fit Trine will be evaluated by surveying the participants before and after they complete one semester of the program. 

Proposed Tasks
Note: The preparation stage for each semester of Get Fit Trine will begin in the final month of the preceding semester. The challenges and activities themselves will take place in the following semester.

Preparation Stage
Task 1: Determine EMP Point Values with Megan Cook – Point values for each of the events in the program must be determined in partnership with Megan Cook. The EMP points will be tracked by the student workers at each event.

Task 2: Create Advertisement for The Program – The faculty sponsor and the project leaders will be responsible for creating literature to advertise the program. They will create team registration sheets (that include t-shirt sizes), signup sheets for fitness center tours, and an email template to send out weekly updates for team standings, slides for the PowerPoint in the UC, and posters to place around campus to advertise the program.

Task 3: Reserve Locations for activities, Lunchtime tables, and Activity Fair Booth for program – The ARC will be used for indoor activities, and the golf course and the large grassy areas beside the Depot and Best Hall for outdoor activities. Student workers will run the booth during lunches and the activity fair to inform students about the program and the opportunities for tours of available exercise facilities and personal exercise routines.

Task 4: Obtain Gift Vouchers from Bookstore – A voucher for free books for a semester must be obtained from the bookstore.

Execution Stage
Task 5: Hire Student Workers – Student workers, ideally exercise science majors, will be responsible for giving students informational tours of the exercise facilities on campus and assisting them in developing their own fitness program. The student workers will be paid $7.25 an hour. In addition, the students who already work in the exercise facilities will be provided with paperwork to track the number of students participating in our program who use the facilities.

Task 6: Hold an Informational Meeting and Training Session for the Faculty Sponsor and Student Workers – A meeting for the faculty sponsor and student workers will inform them of how the program works and provide proper training; also gives them an over view of the game plans for the semester.

Task 7: Tours of Exercise Facilities – The exercise science majors who are student workers will meet with students and help them learn how to use the exercise facilities and plan their individual fitness regimens.

Task 8: Purchase Team T-Shirts – Once the teams signups are over, t-shirts will be purchased for each team according to a predetermined color.

Task 9: Hold Mandatory Initial Meeting for Team Members – This meeting will be mandatory for the members of all the teams and will inform them of the requirements they need to complete in order to be eligible for the prizes. Team T-shirts will also be distributed at this meeting. Participants will be given a survey testing their general knowledge of physical activity. This survey will create a baseline to evaluate the effectiveness of our program.

Task 10: Purchase and Rent Equipment – The equipment needed for various games and events will be purchased or rented on a need-by-need basis by the faculty sponsor and student workers. Rented equipment will be reserved in advance and picked up on the day of the event.

Task 11: Set up for the Competition – Workers will arrive two hours early to set up for the night’s competition. Workers will be setting up the event and checking students in.

Task 12: Rules of the Competition – Our faculty sponsor, Jeremy Howard, will introduce the night’s challenge to the teams and go over the rules.

Task 13: After the Competition – Student workers will tally up the points and send out the team standings via email to each of the participants. They will also create a slide to be shown on the Office of Student Services PowerPoint that shows the top three teams in each division.

Task 14: Announcement of Winners – The winners of the overall competition in each division will be announced at the conclusion of the final competition. The teams will be awarded their prizes at this point. The final evaluation survey will be given at this event.

Task 15: Final Activity – Upon completion of the weekly challenges, all of the teams who attended each session will be able to participate in a big group activity of laser tag.

Timeline

Timeline 1

Timeline 2

Budget

budget

Evaluation

In order to evaluate Get Fit Trine’s effectiveness, we will obtain quantitative data to determine if this part of the program was successful. We will administer a quiz, Appendix A: Evaluation of Physical Activity Awareness among Trine Students, based on the educational fitness information provided at the opening convocation to determine the success of the program. If 85% of the participants pass the quiz, we will consider that the majority. Since the majority will have learned the information we consider the awareness convocation to be successful. This method is used in schools throughout the country to evaluate the effectiveness of programs in the form of quizzes, tests, and exams.

In order to determine the effectiveness and overall success of the program, including the opening convocation and the physical activity program, we will repeat the survey we performed in order to prove that physical inactivity is a problem at Trine. We will survey the students who were inactive coming into the program. If 80% of them are now physically active we will consider the program a success. To make sure the information we gather is valid we will conduct a random survey in the University Center around the same time. We should obtain a very similar sample. By completing the survey the same way we can be sure that the data is statistically valid.

We will also be accounting for the overall participation of the program. In order to do this we will have each student that participates sign a sheet before each event. This will help us compile statistical data that can be used to determine how many students attended versus how many signed up. We will consider it successful if 85% of students attended each event.

In order to determine how effective the physical activities were, we will conduct another survey (Appendix B: Get Fit Trine Program Survey). If a majority of participants feel that the physical activities were fun and engaging we will consider them a success.

Notes

1. United States Department of Agriculture, “Why is Physical Activity Important?”, Accessed November 23, 2014, http://www.choosemyplate.gov/physical-activity/why.html.

2. Julie Janeway, “Obesity Action Coalition: Preventing the Freshman 5, 10, 15, 40,” Obesity Action Coalition, Accessed December 1, 2014, http://www.obesityaction.org/educational-resources/resource-articles-2/weight-loss-surgery/preventing-the-freshman-5-10-15-40.

3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Behaviors of Adults: United States, 2008-2010, 57, Accessed December 8, 2014, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_257.pdf

4. Ibid., 57.

5. Brenda Goodman, “Physical Inactivity May Be as Deadly As Smoking,” Web MD, January 1, 2012, Accessed October 23, 2014, http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/news/20120717/physical-inacivity-may-be-deadly-as-smoking?page=1.

6. United States Department of Agriculture, “Physical Activity”, November 23, 2014.

7. Ibid.

8. Oregon State University, “Academic Success Center,” Oregon State University January 1, 2014, Accessed November 23, 2014, http://health.oregonstate.edu/pac.

9. Jeremy Howard, interview by author, November 17, 2014.

10. United States Department of Agriculture, “Physical Activity”, November 23, 2014.

11. Larissa Hirsch, “Beating the Freshman 15,” KidsHealth – the Web’s Most Visited Site about Children’s Health, January 1, 2014, Accessed October 24, 2014, http://kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/college/freshman_15.html

12. Ibid.

13. United States Department of Agriculture, “Make Better Choices”, Accessed November 23, 2014, http://www.choosemyplate.gov/weight-management-calories/weight-management/better-choices.html.

14. Amy O’Connor, “70% of Students Gain Weight During College: Study,” Health News, September 26, 2012, Accessed October 24, 2014, http://news.health.com/2012/09/26/ college-gain-weight/.

15. United States Department of Agriculture, “Physical Activity”, November 23, 2014.

16. O’Connor, “Students Gain Weight”, September 26, 2012.

17. Elisabeth, Lloyd-Richardson, “A Prospective Study of Weight Gain During the College Freshman and Sophomore Years,” Preventive Medicine, March 2009, Accessed October 23, 2014, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19146870.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. Harvard School of Public Health, “Exercise and Weight Control,” Harvard, Accessed November 23, 2014, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/exercise-weight-loss/.

21. United States Department of Agriculture, “Physical Activity”, November 23, 2014. 22. Trine University, “EMP Program,” Trine University, July 7, 2014, Accessed November 23, 2014, http://www.trine.edu/campus-life/health-and-wellness/emp-program.aspx.

23. Ibid.

24. Megan Cook, interview by author, November 17, 2014.

25. Ibid.

26. Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, “Get to Know Rose-Hulman: Facts,” Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, January 1, 2014, Accessed December 5, 2014, http://www.rose-hulman.edu/admissions-financial-aid/get-to-know-rose-hulman/facts.aspx.

27. Brian Shearer, interview by author, December 5, 2014.

28. Ibid.

29. Brian Neese, e-mail message to author, November 24, 2014.

30. Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, “Recreation Sports and Athletic Facilities,” Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, January 1, 2014, Accessed October 27, 2014, http://www.rose-hulman.edu/admissions-financial-aid/get-to-know-rose-hulman/facts.aspx.

31. “Dunnrite AquaHoop Floating Pool Basketball Hoop,” Walmart.com, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://www.walmart.com/ip/Dunnrite-AquaHoop-Floating-Pool-Basketball-Hoop/38474407.

32. “Fine Crafts 208ANI Chuhuahua 24 Piece Jigsaw Puzzle,” Walmart.com, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://www.walmart.com/ip/Fine-Crafts-208ANI-Chuhuahua-24-piece-jigsaw-puzzle/36323639.

33. “Jumbo Adult Tricycle Rentals in Phoenix, Arizona,” Adult Tricycles. Accessed November 24, 2014, http://www.azbouncepro.com/inflatable-games/adult-tricycles.html.

34. “Razor A3 Kick Scooter, Multiple Colors,” Walmart.com, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://www.walmart.com/ip/10929196?productRedirect=true.

35. “4” Glow Sticks, Orange, 10pk,” Walmart.com, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://www.walmart.com/ip/4-Glow-Sticks-Orange-10pk/33396424.

36. “ShirtChamp.com,” ShirtChamp.com, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://shirtchamp.com.

37. “4D™ Cityscape The City of Chicago Time Puzzle,” Target, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://www.target.com/p/4d-cityscape-the-city-of-chicago-time-puzzle/-/A-14547113.

38. “DAP 10 Oz Flat Black Touch N Tone Spray Paint (Set of 6),” Walmart.com, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://www.walmart.com/ip/DAP-Flat-Black-Touch-n-Tone-Spray-Paint-55275-830-Set-of-6/20962453.

39. “Rent Battle Ball Suits for Bubble Soccer Tournaments & Parties,” Battle Balls, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://battle-balls.com/rent/.

40. “The Packages,” Laser Tag Source, Accessed November 24, 2014, http://lasertagsource.com/.

41. Neese, e-mail, November 24, 2014.

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